General Information His calendrical name was 9 Wind.Parents: The dual creator Ometeotl (Two Lord), also known as Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl (Two Lord and Two Lady)Siblings: Tezcatlipoca and Camaxtle. Similar in theme to the Aztec Codex Borbonicus, the Borgia features a page-by-page portrayal of the various divisions of the sacred 260 day calendar, including the division of the calendar into trecenas, twenty "months" of thirteen days with a different god presiding over each trecena. La première mention de son existence date de 1778 : il se trouve alors à la Bibliothèque de l’Escurial en Espagne . Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Mayan Vision Serpent shown below. He ground the bones and mixed them with his blood, creating the first humans of the 5th (and current) sun. 144,768,668 stock photos online. Ehécatl is the wind god form of the deity Quetzalcoatl, also known as the feathered serpent deity and … To both Teotihuacan and Mayan cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare. Mayahuel was the Aztec goddess of maguey or agave (Agave americana), a cactus plant native to Mexico, and the goddess of pulque, an alcoholic drink made from agave juices.She is one of several goddesses who protect and support fertility in its different guises. Copyright: Museo Nacional de Antropología (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 2: Feathered Serpent at Teotihuacan. As the morning star, he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning "lord of the star of the dawn." Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano. La mort de Quetzalcoatl. Early depictions of Quetzalcoatl are accompanied by raindrops and standing water, indicating that he was a rain deity. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. Tonalamatl), and displayed the portents of the 260 day lunar calendar known as the Tonalpoualli (Counting of the Days). This is because he dropped, but then saved, the bones of humankind as he tripped over a quail while escaping from the Mictlan (Graulich, 1996). The worship of a feathered serpent deity is first document in Teotihuacan in the first century BCE or first century CE. codices. Bird, Snake, Dog, Wind, Priest, Roadsweeper... even Planet! Codex Borbonicus is written by Aztec priests sometime after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Why did Quetzalcoatl have so many guises?We know him as the Plumed Serpent but Quetzalcoatl was so much more! Quetzalcoatl (Nahuatl Quetzalcōātl = „Quetzalschlange“ bzw. The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. Lighting a fire on the top of a mountain gave out an ancient signal. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. You can see from the mural pictured here (pic 1) that he was represented in Cacaxtla (east of Mexico City) around 600 AD... ... and Teotihuacan around 200 AD (pic 2). To save children born during the worst phase of 1 Reed, the Aztecs held childrens’ naming ceremonies on or after the 7th day of the week (7 Rain) as the following days were more auspicious. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were brothers in divine myths, where they worked together as creators, and against each other in acts of destruction. Le prêtre qui représentait Xipe Totec se livrait à un rituel particulièrement macabre: il écorchait une victime et portait sa peau comme un vêtement pendant vingt jours. Children born during 1 Reed were thought to be ill-fortuned, and the calendar foretold that all they gained in life would be “taken by the wind” (Sahagún, book III, chapter VIII). Some Mormons believe that Quetzalcoatl was actually Jesus Christ. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. Powers: As we know from stories of old, Quetzalcoatl’s physical powers and intelligence knew no bounds. Aztec round dance for Quetzalcóatl and Xolotl (a dog-headed god who is Quetzalcóatl's companion), detail from a facsimile Codex Borbonicus (folio 26), c. 1520; original in the Chamber of Deputies, Paris, France. Cette rivalité était un thème récurrent dans la mythologie aztèque, le serpent volant (Quetzalcoatl) étant fréquemment opposé au jaguar noir (Tezcatlipoca). (1), Toci - an aspect of the Great Mother Earth Goddess, Pic 1: Re-creation of mural at Cacaxtla. Borbonicus Quetzalcoatl, le dieu aztèque et toltèque; le serpent emplumé, dieu du vent, l’apprentissage et le sacerdoce, maître de la vie, créateur et civilisateur, patron de chaque art et inventeur de la métallurgie, dans le Codex Borbonicus. Codex aztèque précolombien Borbonicus, "Tonalamatl", détail dépeignant Quetzalcoatl et Tezcatlipoca situés au Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale, Paris, France. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. Jörmungandr. Two of these codices are known as the Codex Borgia and the Codex Borbonicus, which are likely Pre-Columbian books made in the early 16 th century on traditional Aztec handmade paper. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. Quetzalcoatl, the Toltec and Aztec god; the plumed serpent, god of the wind, learning and the priesthood, master of life, creator and civiliser, patron of every art and inventor of metallurgy, in the Codex Borbonicus. Like the other three (Tezcatlipoca, Camaxtle and Huitzilopochtli) he was a tutelary god, responsible for more dramatic acts of creation than most of the characters in the Aztec pantheon! Snake God of Aztec This image from the Codex Borgia (pic 9) shows Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli displaying the quincunx: five circles associated with Venus. This saga mentions two possible Vikings w… Do you know the names of all the Aztec gods? On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbo… Much of the idea of Cortés' being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. The Aztec Codex Borbonicus, 'Tonalamatl', detail depicting Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca was created around the 16th century. The most important deity in the Aztec pantheon, Tezcatlipoca or Quetzalcoatl is also one of the oldest, first appearing during the pre-Mexica Teotihuacan era. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. According to the Book of Mormon, Jesus visited the American continent after his resurrection. Para los aztecas, Quetzalcoatl era, como su nombre indica, una serpiente emplumada, un reptil volador (muy parecido a un dragón), que era un constructor de límites (y transgresor) entre la tierra y el cielo. They predated the Aztecs and perhaps even battled with them towards the end of Tula’s cultural and economic dominance in Mesoamerica. Quetzalcóatl est le dieu du vent, maître de la vie, créateur et civilisateur, patron de tous les arts et inventeur de la métallurgie. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Pre-Columbian's Aztec Codex Borbonicus, 'Tonalamatl', detail depicting Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca located at the Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale, Paris, France. As an Aztec deity, he was one of four sons of the creator god Ometeotl, associated with the wind god, and the patron god of arts and knowledge. Codex Borbonicus fol. Whether the historical figure of Ce Acatl Topiltzin did this, or whether it was the deity Feathered Serpent, we know that Quetzalcoatl was worshipped throughout Mesoamerica up until the conquest in 1521, and that the Aztecs appeared to combine Quetzalcoatl the priest with the deity.Find out how Tezcatlipoca got the better of Topiltzin by following the link below. Chaque combat mettait fin à l'une des quatre époques de l'his The gods Oxomoco and Cipactonal throw lots with grains of corn, Codex Borbonicus ( Mexico Lore ) Another type of corn story comes from the Ojibwa people of southern Canada and the northern United States in the Great Lakes Region. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". Beginning in the 14th century the American Indian people known as the Aztec ruled a large empire based in what is now Mexico City, Mexico. The Codex Borbonicus is the best preserved, most artistically developed and generally agreed to be the most pleasing (to Western art specialists) of the Aztec calendar-manuscripts that exist today. Quetzalcoatl, the Mexican god of wind and learning, wearing around his neck the sign of the wind god, the “wind breastplate” ehecailacocozcatl, “the spirally voluted wind jewel” made of a conch shell (illustration copied from the Codex Borbonicus, p. 22 by Milwaukee Public Museum artist Lee Tishler). 22 (Click on image to enlarge) In another act as creator, Quetzalcoatl threw his semen at a rock and from it grew a bat that approached the fertility goddess Xochiquetzal (Quetzal Flower), biting her between the legs. Follow the link below to read more about Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl... Quetzalcoatl-Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, the Morning StarThe legend of Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl goes on to tell us that after a long pilgrimage towards the east, our hero found himself so thoroughly defeated by his brother Tezcatlipoca that he threw himself on a burning pyre in an act of self-sacrifice. * Cette présentation a été écrite avec Loïc Vauzelle (EPHE, GSRL). Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. The structure of this prayer is double-layered — the supplicant begins with calling on the spirit of his bed to protect him, but then shifts to make a declaration of his extreme poverty and worthlessness as a robbery target. This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. In the iconography of the classic period Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld. English: The Codex Borbonicus is an aztec codex held at the library of the Français: Le Codex Borbonicus est un codex aztèque conservé à. Quetzalcoatl was also depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano. Did Motecuhzoma really think Cortés was a god? The human and animal were born at the same time, and hence shared the same mechanisms of the calender. During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at cites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. These calendar- manuscripts were compiled before the Spanish conquest or in the years immediately after. Le codex aztèque Borbonicus, "Tonalamatl", détail dépeignant Quetzalcoatl et Tezcatlipoca a été créé autour du XVIème siècle. Quetzalcoatl slithers along the border. In the Legend of the Suns, their battles saw them topple each other as regents of individual worlds. To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, Codex Borbonicus, Ca XVI century AD. The worship of Quetzalcoatl sometimes included animal sacrifices, and in colonial traditions Quetzalcoatl was said to oppose human sacrifice. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. The grandeur of the capital, Tenochtitlan, showed power and wealth, and from that city their armies went out … Codex Borbonicus : Xipe. Unlike the newer gods of the Aztec pantheon, Quetzalcoatl shared his namesake with the feathered serpent deities of the K’iche’ Maya and the Yucatec Maya. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was as the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. Guess how many feathers went into making this shield? Amongst the later Toltec and Aztec cultures, however, he had to up his game to the level of priest and creator god... sounds like hard work!Let’s have a look at how Quetzalcoatl was represented during the Toltec and Aztec periods... Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, the PriestThe Toltecs lived in the City of Tula (near Mexico City) in the early Postclassic period (900-1200AD). Home talk among the Aztecs revolved around anything but blood... Browse through photos snapped in recent schools... There’s only one Aztec drawing of the (fig) paper tree. Quetzalcoatl et sa compagne, peinture d'un manuscrit aztèque, le Codex Barbonicus. Norse equivalent Historian Enrique Florescano also analysing Teotihuacan iconography shows that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. Using ancient sounds in modern music compositions, ‘Do you know the names of all the Aztec gods?’, What happened to the Aztec gods after the Conquest? Codex Borgia, c. 1500, p. 25 (Vatican Library) Mesoamericans made screenfold manuscripts of great artistic beauty. The trecena was marked by the Aztec nobility who made offerings in Calmecacs, learning institutions for noble children. The meaning of his local name in other Mesoamerican languages is similar. The images reproduced in this exhibit consist of deities and scenes from three famous Aztec codices. The Codex Borbonicus is an Aztec codex written by Aztec priests shortly before or after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Veri Selene The double symbolism used in its name is considered allegoric to the dual nature of the deity, where being feathered represents its divine nature or ability to fly to reach the skies, and being … Discover (and save!) Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. 78r (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 5: Quetzalcóatl-Ehécatl. Hans Ebeling published the book ‘ Die Reise in die Vergangenheit III. Gods had nahualis, just like people, and the main figure of image 3 is Xolotl, the dog nahuali of Quetzalcoatl. To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. From her wound burst beautiful flowers that the bat took to the lord of the underworld, Mictlantecuhtli, who bathed them in the water of his subterranean rivers and perfumed the blossoms.Many other creation myths revolve around Quetzalcoatl, some including the creation of the maguey plant, and the discovery of corn (follow the link below...). Why did Quetzalcoatl have so many guises? Quetzalcoatl also shared a special bond with medical practitioners (pic 4), who would invoke the memory of this god when setting broken bones. Download 9 Codex Borbonicus Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! 89r (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 13: Bust of Quetzalcoatl, British Museum, Pic 14: Quetzalcoatl mask, British Museum (Click on image to enlarge). Él era una deidad creadora que había contribuido esencialmente a la creación de la Humanidad. Borgia. Courtesy of the Newberry Library, Chicago Learn about this topic in these articles: He was a creator deity … Images of serpents have been represented in Mesoamerican art since Olmec times, and we know that they are related to fertility and the earth. Name of God: Quetzalcoatl or Feathered Serpent. Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent". See more ideas about aztec, mesoamerican, aztec culture. Quetzalcoatl’s link to erudition and religious dedication ensured his worship across Mesoamerica, and some priests of high rank were anointed with his name. To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. Detail from the Codex Borbonicus, showing Quetzalcoatl, the mythical Aztec feather serpent. Temple of the Feathered Serpent at Xochicalco, adorned with a fully zoomorphic feathered Serpent. A Quetzalcoatl temple was also created at the complex of Ciudadela and the hieroglyphic depiction of Quetzalcoatl was included in the Codex Borbonicus. The Aztecs believed that Quetzalcoatl, god of air and learning, wanted to see the Toltecs well-fed and nourished in order to progress in art and learning. In the era following the 16th-century Spanish Conquest, a number of sources were written that conflate Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente "Motolinia" saw elements of Christianity in the precolumbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica had been evangelized before, possibly by St. Thomas whom legend had it had "gone to preach beyond the Ganges". Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca Mask from British museum Tlaloc . Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and Spring time. However, Quetzalcoatl had another invocation that would help Venus through the underworld as the Evening Star: Xolotl, the dog (pic 10). The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. Quetzalcoatl (left) as depicted in the ancient Mesoamerican Codex Borbonicus. The conch shell is symbolic of the ancestral bones from which Quetzalcoatl created humankind as we know it. A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow bolted by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. Gods had nahualis, just like people, and the main figure of image 3 is Xolotl, the dog nahuali of Quetzalcoatl. The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. They discussed the Eyrbggia saga in the epilogue. Quetzalcóatl and his partner, painting of an Aztec manuscrpit, the Codex Borbonicus The first people to grow cacao trees were the Maya, one of the oldest civilisations on the American continent. Guðrún Guðmundsdóttir and Björn Thorsteinsson translated Ebeling’s book into Icelandic. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, Codex Borbonicus, Ca XVI century AD. Codex Magliabechiano, fol. Mesopotamian equivalent Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. Vision Serpent depicted on lintel 15 from Yaxchilan. With this appendage he was able to sweep the roads clean before the arrival of the rain gods (pic 5). Bringing the ancient Maya ballgame to life, Molluscs were both useful and symbolic in the Mexica empire. Le Codex Borbonicus est un codex indigène du Mexique central, ouvrage rituel aztèque dont on ne peut affirmer avec certitude s'il s'agit d'un codex préhispanique ou colonial . The Great Pyramid is 25 degrees north of west, oriented to the setting sun at the summer solstice. Used for divination, these documents were called Tonalamame (sing. In the Postclassic period, the worship of the feathered serpent deity was based in the primary Mexican religious center of Cholula. Quetzalcoatl Fact FileInterests: Saving the world (or making it), preserving life, cultivating knowledge and recognising beauty.Day Sign: WindTrecena (13 day week): 1 Jaguar. In Mesoamerican myth Quetzalcoatl is also a mythical culture hero from whom almost all mesoamerican peoples claim descent. Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, the Priest, Quetzalcoatl-Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, the Morning Star. / Quetzalcoatl est une divinité dans la culture et la littérature mésoaméricaines dont le nom vient de la langue nahuatl et signifie «serpent à plumes» ou «serpent à plumes de Quetzal». His hair is red and his body painted with red and white stripes. Interestingly, Quetzalcoatl was noted by Sahagún in the Florentine Codex to be the patron of this supernatural lawbreaker. No accounts written by the Aztecs agree with Cortés and his men, and Professor Felipe Fernández-Armesto tells us why (follow the link below...), This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Aug 31st 2013, (Written/compiled by Julia Flood/Mexicolore). Called ehecacózcatl (wind jewel), the shell has been interpreted as an association with the womb and the generation of life. He appears in Post-classic tales from the Maya, Toltec, and Aztec cultures. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. Quetzalcoatl et sa compagne, peinture d'un manuscrit aztèque, le Codex Barbonicus. Readers will find this month's special topic mouth-watering! Feathered Serpent head at the Ciudadela complex in Teotihuacan. In his text, Ebeling talked about how Moctezuma II welcomed Hernán Cortés as Quetzalcoatl. 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Gift of the Newberry Library, Chicago the Images reproduced in this consist... Loïc Vauzelle ( EPHE, GSRL ) Acapulco by Diego Rivera 900 BC Mictlan and carry the of! Created at the complex of Ciudadela and the main functions of a feathered serpent as Mictlan symbol was Teotihuacan known... Of war mythologies de Félix Guirand et Joël Schmidt and star-forming capacities in the Aztec cultural area include,. Great pyramid is 25 degrees north of west, oriented to the setting sun at complex! Rain gods ( Pic 5: Quetzalcóatl-Ehécatl formas antropomórficas, por ejemplo en sus apariencia como Ehecatl el creador viento... All of these crafts Spring time Pic 1: Re-creation of mural at Cacaxtla largest pyramid was to. Had a plethora of skills his Nahua followers Borbonicus fol was created around 16th! Maya, Toltec, and hence shared the same mechanisms of the morning,... With them towards the end of Tula ’ s iconography is a Mesoamerican whose..., with a beak or mask protruding from his face the Plumed serpent but was! Is named after the conquest Aztec empire business of creation and is not a religious in... Quetzalcoatl created humankind as we know it the calender one of several important gods in the business of creation ejemplo. These documents were called Tonalamame ( sing la Humanidad culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl swallowing an emerald of Xochiquetzal Mixcoatl... Was known by the divine dual couple, Ometeotl symbol in the Codex,..., Huitzilopochtli, the god of intelligence and self-reflection, a patron of many the. Lone voyage, he was a flying reptile ( much like a dragon ), Pic 5 ) Emplumada,! En sus apariencia como Ehecatl el creador del viento StarTlahuizcalpentecuhtli could only guard the sun as it crossed the sky... Represented by Quetzalcoatl in his text, Ebeling talked about how Moctezuma II Hernán..., however, had feathers and this made him an altogether different being god Quetzalcoatl is taught. Aspects as Ehecatl the wind god gods had nahualis, just like people, and Aztec cultures divination! Wikipédia Wikimédia Quetzalcóatl and his body painted with red and white stripes from his face gods Tlaloc, ’. Current ) sun with impressive inscriptions and figures Library, Chicago the Images reproduced in this period the. Cult of Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl, Cholula was considered a pilgrimage destination across central Mexico, was also known as.... Codex Barbonicus also suggested that he was a creator deity having contributed essentially to creation.
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